What are free radicals actually?
Free radicals are molecular fragments and rather choleric contemporaries. They carry a single, unpaired electron - from their point of view, an untenable condition. In their search for a new bonding partner, the chemically extremely reactive radicals literally go berserk: When they encounter an atom, they immediately snatch an electron from it and thus set off a chain reaction: Their collision with the atom turns it into a free radical itself.
To make matters worse, they cause further damage in the process. They shoot holes in the cell membrane, alter the genetic material, disrupt metabolic processes, destroy proteins and much more. All in all, this rampage is called oxidative stress. And it is precisely this stress that is the problem: inflammations, diseases, mutations - they all start with an excess of stressed or damaged cells.
Quantity makes the stress: sources of free radicals
Free radicals are part of our cellular metabolism at all times - they belong to us, even if they are actually just trouble. Our body copes well with these homemade cellular troublemakers. It becomes problematic when they get out of hand. Because in addition to the body's own free radicals, these are also produced in large numbers by harmful environmental influences such as environmental toxins, cigarette smoke or UV radiation.
A smoker inhales around 100 trillion free radicals with every puff of a cigarette. That many grains of rice would easily be enough to cover the entire Federal Republic of Germany!
The sun also promotes the chain reaction described above, because it generates oxidative stress in the cell. UV-A radiation is primarily responsible for visible premature skin aging, as about half of it penetrates deep into the dermis. UVB radiation does not reach as deep, but is more insidious because it damages cell DNA, which promotes the development of skin cancer.
These skin damages are favored by free radicals
With the free radicals, oxidative stress enters the cell. Basically, this favors all aging processes:
- Due to the fact that the chain reaction of free radicals snatches electrons from the cell membrane of the skin cell, its metabolism is disturbed. this can accelerate cell death.
- Unfortunately, free radicals are not choosy in their raid. They attack not only viruses or bacteria, but also, for example, the lipids of the skin's protective barrier. If the skin barrier fails to close the holes in the lipid film, it becomes fragile and can no longer perform its protective function adequately.
- Other building blocks that are important for the skin also fall victim to free radicals: keratin, elastin and collagen are broken down more quickly and cause the volume and elasticity of the skin to shrink.
- Damage caused outside the skin cells also reflects negatively on the skin: skin diseases are triggered or favored.
In summary: Oxidative stress triggered by free radicals is the skin cell's greatest enemy. It hinders their regeneration, promotes destructive processes and also causes damage outside the skin that impairs skin health.
Antioxidants - generous superheroes
No villain without a superhero fighting for good! Fortunately, this is not only true for Hollywood, but also for our skin. Said superheroes in this case are called antioxidants. Because they help the body maintain its chemical balance.
Antioxidants are, for example, certain vitamins and trace elements that act as the body's own interceptors and have an excess of electrons. They can donate a free electron to the free radicals without being damaged themselves. Thus, antioxidants are able to take the force out of free radicals and transform them into stable and harmless compounds so that they can be metabolized normally. Antioxidants also play a role in skin care - for example, it makes absolute sense to use a sunscreen with antioxidant ingredients. This makes it a little harder for the free radicals generated by UV radiation to cause damage through the protective layer of antioxidants.
Since antioxidants are present in our body, they are naturally present in the skin and fight free radicals. Nevertheless, you can support antioxidants. In relation to the skin, therefore, products with the highest possible proportion of antioxidants are useful - preferably when different antioxidants are combined. Products containing antioxidants should preferably have no contact with light and oxygen, because they react quite sensitively to it and lose their effectiveness.
Vitamins A, B, C, E and H are not only beneficial in nutrition, but also in skin care: Supplied from the outside, they have an antioxidant effect against free radicals. In addition, there are many other active ingredients such as Q10 or magnolia extract, which neutralize the unloved free radicals.
These products support you in the fight against free radicals
Good to know: All HighDroxy products contain antioxidants - they are simply part of the balanced formulation of a care product.
Image source: shutterstock.com / SciePro